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Crusading and the Crusader States by Andrew Jotischky

By Andrew Jotischky

Crusading as an issue has elevated lately to incorporate new fields of enquiry. This e-book examines how crusading historiography contains new components and new definitions, concentrating on primary concerns in present writing: why humans went on crusades and what varieties the western cost within the close to East took.
Crusading and the Crusader States explains how the assumption of holy wars got here into being and why they took the shape that they did – a conflict among western and Islamic societies that ruled the center a long time.

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Koinon of asia COIN TYPE 4. Obv: PERGAMHNVN KAI %ARDIANVN Bearded male in long chiton (the People of Pergamon) raises r. 25 Rev: %EBA%TON KEFALIVN GRAMMATEUVN Two-column temple, cuirassed emperor with sceptre within. a) BMC 360 b) BMC 361 c) BMC 362 d) BMC 363 e) London 1979-1-1-1590 (illus. pl. 18 fig. 47; temple incorrectly described as fourcolumn in RPC 1 no. 2362; dated ca. ). COIN TYPE 5. Obv: %ILBANON PERGAMHNOI Togate M. 26 Rev: %EBA%TON DHMOFVN Four-column temple, cuirassed emperor with sceptre within.

59 Rossner 1974, 112, 124, 125, 129, 131 (chief priest); 131 (chief priestess); 117 (Asiarch); 118 (chief priest who is elsewhere known as Asiarch); and 121, 127 (chief priest and chief priestess in the temples in first and twice neokoros Pergamon). 60 For such benefactions in general see Pleket 1976. 61 For the son and the provincial status, see H. Müller 2000, 519-520 n. 6. 62 Halfmann 1979, 34. 63 On the other hand, there must have been very few, if any, other chief priesthoods that, like the one cited in inscription 11, included in their duties the supervision of more than one temple; and nothing forbids a provincial chief priest from being honored by his own city.

It may be, therefore, that only the Asians’ request included a festival; it is even possible that this part of the petition came from a Pergamene embassy additional to that of the koinon. But Dio implies that the contest of sacred status was supplementary and in honor of the temple, not an invariable result of it. E. 30 Dio did not discuss the personnel of the proposed temples, so information on them must be gathered from other sources. In Asia, the highest official of the imperial temple, and probably of the koinon as a whole, was the chief priest.

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