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Critical Theory to Structuralism; Philosophy, Politics and

Philosophy in the midst of the twentieth Century, among 1920 and 1968, replied to the cataclysmic occasions of the time. Thinkers at the correct became to authoritarian varieties of nationalism looking for reliable varieties of collective id, will, and function. Thinkers at the Left promoted egalitarian varieties of humanism lower than the banner of overseas communism. Others observed those adversarial traits as converging within the extinction of the person and sought to retrieve the beliefs of the Enlightenment in ways in which seriously said the contradictions of a liberal democracy racked by way of classification, cultural, and racial clash. Key figures and activities mentioned during this quantity comprise Schmitt, Adorno and the Frankfurt tuition, Arendt, Benjamin, Bataille, French Marxism, Black Existentialism, Saussure and Structuralism, Levi Strauss, Lacan and past due Pragmatism. those members and faculties of suggestion spoke back to this 'modernity crisis' in several methods, yet principally fascinated about what they looked as if it would be liberal democracy's betrayal of its personal rationalist beliefs of freedom, equality, and fraternity.

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Viewed from a historical point of view, it can be observed that the liberal visions of positivism and Kantianism reflected the reality of European constitutional states that had not fully entered the condition of mass democracy, and in which the social interests that could be legally represented were restricted. With the increasing demands for substantial franchise reform in most European states after 1900, however, liberal theories began to modify their formalistic constructions of legality and legitimacy.

See Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, Second Essay, §11. 5. Max Weber, “Parlament und Regierung im neugeordneten Deutschland,” in Gesammelte politische Schriften (Tübingen: Mohr, 1921), 391. 21 chris thornhill In consequence, the reaction against orthodox Marxism after 1900 showed similarities with the reaction against liberalism, and it brought a dramatic expansion of the political-actionistic content of Marxist theory. 11 He thus championed, not the class, but the mythical nation as a unit of political 6.

24 carl schmit t and early western marxism of sociality governing human life, and that real human order depends on the constant exercise of inalienable and indivisible sovereign power. Throughout his career, in consequence, Schmitt devoted himself to isolating the corrosive elements of liberal theory, to identifying the concrete reasons why liberalism undermined the integrity of particular states, and – as a matter of day-to-day political engagement – to elaborating principles to counteract the dissolution of statehood enacted by liberal arguments and liberal principles of institutional design.

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