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CPU Design: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions by Chandra Thimmannagari

By Chandra Thimmannagari

I am venerated to write down the foreword for Chandra Thimmannagari’s booklet on CPU layout. Chandra’s ebook offers a realistic evaluation of Microprocessor and excessive finish ASIC layout as practiced at the present time. it's a important addition to the literature on CPU layout, and is made attainable via Chandra’s detailed mixture of in depth hands-on CPU layout event at businesses reminiscent of AMD and solar Microsystems and a fondness for writing. Technical books concerning CPU layout are frequently written by means of researchers in academia or and have a tendency to select one region, CPU architecture/Bus structure/ CMOS layout that's the forte of the writer, and current that during nice element. Suchbooks are of serious price to scholars and practitioners in that quarter. even though, engineers engaged on CPU layout have to boost an knowing of components outdoor their very own to be powerful. CPU layout is a multi dimensional challenge and one dimensional optimization is frequently counterproductive.

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Figure 30: 8-bit Pseudo LRU for a 4-Way Set Associative Cache Memory 2. e lru[7:0] = 8’b11100100 for all entries). 3. Use the following algorithm to update the 8-bit vector in the case of a Cache Hit 44 CPU Design: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Table 8: Pseudo LRU Algorithms 4. Use the following algorithm to update the 8-bit vector in the case of a Snoop Invalidate Architecture 45 Table 8: Pseudo LRU Algorithms 5. Use the following algorithm to replace an entry and update the 8-bit LRU vector in the case of a Cache Miss 14.

Figure 37: Non-CMP MultiProcessor System CMP MultiProcessor System Figure below shows a CMP MultiProcessor system.

Coherency problem refers to inconsistency of distributed cached copies of the same cache line addressed from the shared memory. A Memory System is Coherent if it meets the following three requirements - Architecture 51 1. e In figure below if CPU 1 writes ‘A’ to location ‘Y’ then all future reads of location ‘Y’ will return ‘A’ if no other processor writes to location ‘Y’ after CPU 1. Figure 33: Requirement 1 for a Coherent Memory System 2. e In figure below if CPU 1 writes ‘A’ to location ‘Y’, CPU 2 will eventually be able to read value ‘A’ from location ‘Y’ as long as there are no other writes to location ‘Y’ in between the write made by CPU 1 and the read made by CPU 2.

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