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Colossus: Bletchley Park's Last Secret by Paul Gannon

By Paul Gannon

'Gannon's ebook incorporates a mass of completely attention-grabbing and mostly unknown fabric approximately an immensely vital wartime venture, and is especially welcome indeed.' Brian Rendell, TES

In 1940, nearly a 12 months after the outbreak of the second one international warfare, Allied radio operators at an interception station in South London begun choosing up messages in an odd new code. utilizing technological know-how, maths, innovation and improvisation Bletchley Park codebreakers labored furiously to invent a computer to decipher what grew to become out to be the secrets and techniques of Nazi excessive command. It used to be referred to as Colossus.

What those codebreakers didn't become aware of used to be they'd to style the world's first actual desktop. while the warfare ended, this exceptional invention used to be dismantled and hidden away for nearly 50 years. Paul Gannon has pieced jointly the large tale of what's now well-known because the maximum mystery of Bletchley Park.

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1 Rings engraved with the busts of a married couple became very fashionable in the fourth and early fifth centuries throughout the Roman Empire and continued in sixth-century Byzantium. Gold ring with busts of a married couple 5th century (Ferrell Collection) fig. 2 Typically the portraits are generic and not particularly realistic, but sometimes these rings were personalized with the names of the couple. , Dumbarton Oaks, inv. 18) 62 L AT E R O M A N R I N G S , 4 T H - 5 T H C E N T U RY 7. 8 g; US size 7; UK size N ½ The ring is composed of eleven oval gold cells, each containing a highly polished cabochon emerald.

Syria fell to the invaders in 637, Egypt in 642, and Carthage in 698. In 717, Constantinople itself was 31 32 INTRODUCTION threatened, but the Arabs were driven back to eastern Asia Minor and the borders were stabilized. Internally, Byzantium in the early eighth century was divided by the iconoclastic controversy, during which time (c. 730-787) religious images were banned. Although there is no clear documentary evidence, iconoclasm appears to have severely affected the production of jewelry, for very few pieces dating from this period survive.

The letters in the monogram are always Greek, suggesting, along with the evidence of the find sites, that the fashion was popular in the East, primarily in Asia Minor and Syria. A number of these monogram gems have been discovered in their original rings, such as the fine example set with a red jasper in Cologne’s Museum für Angewante Kunst (fig. 1). All known examples of these rings, including the present one, are of well attested shapes dating from the early to mid-third century. Monograms of this type appear to have fallen out of fashion quickly and did not reappear in quantity until the fifth century, when personal monograms on gems and rings again became very popular (see cat.

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