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BGA (Ball Grid Array) by National Semiconductor Application Note 1126 2003

By National Semiconductor Application Note 1126 2003

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This level shift is essential in maintaining the pMOS devices in moderate inversion, and in maintaining the correct common-mode level for the output of the first stage 32 2 Fully Differential Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) of the OTA. A current source is designed using a single nMOS device. To increase the inversion level of this device, the bias voltage is applied both, through the gate and the body. A replica of this current source is used in the biasing circuit as shown in Fig.

A stand-alone gate-input OTA was included on the same chip as a test structure. In simulation, the design had a DC small-signal gain of 55 dB, a nominal unity gain bandwidth of 15 MHz and a phase margin of 60o . The measured open-loop frequency response of the OTA is shown in Fig. 24 for different VNR . The negative resistor bias circuit automatically sets VNR such that the OTA DC gain is 62 dB. These measurements were done for a load resistor of 50 kΩ. The DC gain is expected to be much higher for smaller loading.

The significant series resistance can be attributed to distributed effects – the source and the drain are connected outside the device, but internally there is a large channel resistance between them. A distributed model used to predict this resistance is shown in Fig. 4. Techniques to accurately predict this series resistance have been discussed in [71]. More details on the varactor modeling are given in Appendix A. 1 Closed-form model We define the gate-source transadmittance, Ygs , by Ig /Vs , where Vs is a voltage phasor applied to the source/drain terminal and Ig is a current phasor leaving the gate terminal, with VB and VG constant.

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