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Between Past and Future: The Revolution of 1989 and Their by Sorin Antohi, Vladimir Tismaneanu

By Sorin Antohi, Vladimir Tismaneanu

The 10th anniversary of the cave in of communism in valuable and jap Europe is the root for this article which displays upon the earlier ten years and what lies forward for the longer term. a global team of teachers and public intellectuals, together with former dissidents and energetic politicians, have interaction in an alternate at the antecedents, explanations, contexts, meanings and legacies of the 1989 revolutions. The individuals tackle quite a few matters together with liberal democracy and its enemies; modernity and discontent; monetary reforms and their social impression; ethnicity; nationalism and faith; geopolitics; electoral structures and political strength; eu integration; and the death of Yugoslavia.

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Extra resources for Between Past and Future: The Revolution of 1989 and Their Aftermath

Sample text

As we approach the millennium it is tempting to ad­ dress our subject in a millenarian fashion. Indeed, the subject seems to invite such an approach. For the velvet revolutions of 1989 were surely world historical events—even if, as Jiirgen Habermas put it, they were "rectifying revolutions", reiterating classical themes of liberal democ­ racy. The overturning of communism, first in Eastern Europe and then in Russia, signified the death of revolutionary Marxism and transformed the political geography of Europe and, indeed, the world.

The three major crises of com­ munism in the Balkans (Tito's break with Stalin in 1948, Hoxha's swing in allegiance from Moscow to Peking in 1961, and Ceausescu's 1968 bid for independence) all stressed the autonomy of the national communist apparatus vis-a-vis Moscow while reinforcing the totalitarian features of the regime. The origins of the rebirth of civil society in Central Europe go back to these three major crises as well as to the dissident movements of the 1970s and 1980s. The origins of "nationalism as the supreme stage of communism"—to use Adam Michnik's phrase—in the Balkans owes a great deal to the legacies of Ceausescu, Hoxha, and Tito.

Indeed, the subject seems to invite such an approach. For the velvet revolutions of 1989 were surely world historical events—even if, as Jiirgen Habermas put it, they were "rectifying revolutions", reiterating classical themes of liberal democ­ racy. The overturning of communism, first in Eastern Europe and then in Russia, signified the death of revolutionary Marxism and transformed the political geography of Europe and, indeed, the world. The year 1989 seemed to inaugurate a new world, or at least a new world order.

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