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Balkan syntax and semantics by Olga Miseska Tomic

By Olga Miseska Tomic

The ebook offers with a few syntactic and semantic elements of the shared Balkan Sprachbund houses. In a complete introductory bankruptcy, Tomić bargains an outline of the Balkan Sprachbund houses. Sobolev, showing the areal distribution of sixty five houses, argues for dialect cartography. Friedman, at the instance of the evidentials, argues for typologically educated areal clarification of the Balkan homes. the opposite contributions examine particular phenomena: polidefinite DPs in Greek and Aromanian (Campos and Stavrou), Balkan structures within which datives mix with impersonal clitics or non-active morphology (Rivero), Balkan optatives (Ammann and Auwera), critical strength within the Balkan languages (Isac and Jakab), clitic placement in Greek imperatives (Bošković), centred parts in Romanian and Bulgarian (Hill), artificial and analytic tenses in Romanian (D'Hulst, Coene and Avram), "purpose-like" amendment in a few Balkan languages (Bužarovska), Balkan modal existential “wh”-constructions (Grosu), baby and grownup suggestions in analyzing empty matters in Serbian/Croatian (Stojanović and Marelj), conditional sentences in Judeo-Spanish (Montoliu and Auwera).

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The main verbs of the sentences in which these subjunctive constructions appear express (a) assertion or denial of existence or (b) coming into being, view or availability or causation of one of these. In (61) we have examples of subjunctive constructions with “wh” arguments or adjuncts in complement positions of equivalents of the existential verb “have” – a verb that typically expresses assertion or denial of existence: (61) a. Ima koj da mi pomogne. ’ b. Njama kakvo da kupiš. ’ c. Nemaš kako da pošalješ paket.

S’ka (që) ç-të bëhet. 37 (2381-2444) The Balkan Sprachbund properties MG h. pres ta emborevmata. ’ ABR i. Na(n)e kasaja te avav. ’ Grosu (this volume) refers to the subjunctive complements with “wh” arguments or adjuncts as “modal existential “wh”-constructions” (MECs), and argues that they have the superficial appearance of a “wh”-clause, but the semantics of a narrow-scope existential generalized quantifier, such that the property expressed by the IP has modal possibility/ability force. Building on Grosu (1994), Grosu and Landman (1998) and Izvorski (1998), and modifying some of the views in these works, Grosu (this volume) proposes that MECs are non-core relative constructions consisting of a bare CP which carries the feature [GQ∃ ], as well as a specification of its particular modality.

In Balkan Slavic, these pronominal clitics are used for anaphoric reference whenever co-referential with the subject. 26 (1659-1711) Olga Mišeska Tomi´c (42) a1 Ti se mieš. a2 Ti se umivaš. ’ b1 Petko se mie. umiva. ’ c1 Petko go mie. c2 Petko ga umiva. ’ Ma/Bu SC Ma/Bu SC Ma/Bu SC In Balkan Romance, the reflexive/impersonal pronominal clitics are used only for anaphoric reference to third persons: (43) a1 Ion s-a ras. ’ a2 Iani si bricia¸sti. 3sg a3 Iane s-sursi. ’ b1 Ion î¸si cânt˘a. 3sg b2 Iani a˘¸s cont˘a.

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