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Armies of Bactria 700BC-450AD by Valerii Nikonorov, Philip Greenough, Rory Little, Alexander

By Valerii Nikonorov, Philip Greenough, Rory Little, Alexander Sil'nov

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101 Klasova borotba, 427. See also Vozniak, lak probudylosia, 151, for another example of peasant demands for education in 1848. , "0 prawach wioscian," 143. 103 Klasova borotba, 500. See also below, 30. The Hungarian nobility preferred Latin to both German and Magyar precisely because it was so difficult for the common people to understand. Rosdolsky, Die grosse Steuer- und Agrarreform, 157-8. 98 99 16 Serfdom and Servitudes peasantry's ignorance was used as a pretext to keep it from exerCISing an influence over its own affairs.

28 Landlords could raise labour rents not only by increasing the number of labour days but also by expanding the number of hours in the working day. In some districts there had been the custom of working only half a day on corvee or of starting the working day at eight or nine o'clock in the morning. In response to the three-day-limit, landlords universally replaced these shorter working days with days that lasted from dawn to dusk. ) limited the corvee working day to twelve hours in summer (from 1 April through 30 September) and to eight hours during the rest of the year (winter).

7. U ekonom. okonom. 71 The Enforcement of Serfdom 11 corporal punishment on serfs in 1775 and abolished it completely in 1788; but Franz I renewed that right in 1793. 77 Even so, the manor was not permitted to have peasants beaten with cudgels (U kyi; the cudgel was the prerogative of the circle authorities or their delegates). " Some insight into the punitive measures applied to enforce serfdom can be gained by looking at the individual case of Hrynko Liush, a peasant from Kunashiv, Berezhany circle, who brought his complaints against the manor to the circle authorities in 1848.

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