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Applied Surgical Physiology Vivas by Mazyar Kanani

By Mazyar Kanani

An figuring out of easy sciences is the cornerstone of clinical and surgical education, and viva examinations particularly stay a resource of tension for plenty of applicants. utilized surgical procedure body structure Vivas follows a similar layout because the highly well known normal Pathology Vivas and Surgical serious Care Vivas. It supplies applicants a way of practicing essentially the most universal questions that they are going to be requested of their viva examinations, with certain version solutions and diagrams to focus on key issues the place important. Pocket-sized for portability, and filled with worthy details in an easy-to-use A-Z layout, this ebook might help the reader to increase their wisdom base and, through practicing the vivas, achieve self belief of their exam method.

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This is a transmembrane enzyme composed of a number of subunits that have specific functions determined by their position in relation to the cell membrane. 11. What is so distinctive about the way that it signals? Following ligand binding, the receptor phosphorylates itself (autophosphorylation). Following this phenomenon, the receptor further phosphorylates target intracellular proteins with greater efficiency. 12. Generally speaking, what kinds of hormones signal directly through intracellular receptors?

Thus, if the heart rate were increased in isolation, the CO would actually fall since there is a marked reduction in end-diastolic volume that occurs with shorter diastolic filling. ᭿ APPLIED SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY VIVAS CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO) 1. What is the definition of the CO? This is defined as the product of the heart rate and the stroke volume. C 2. Give a normal resting value for the CO. 5–6 LminϪ1. 4. Which factors influence the stroke volume? Preload ᭹ Afterload ᭹ Myocardial contractility ᭹ Heart rate ᭹ CARDIAC OUTPUT 3.

This goes on to activate a number of protein kinases important in producing the desired effect on the target organ ᭹ Muscarinic cholinoceptors: although these are G-protein coupled receptors, the exact system of second-messenger signalling has not been fully elucidated ᭹ Nicotinic cholinoceptors: these are not G-protein coupled, but are directly linked to ion channels 10. Give some examples of the results of stimulation of the various adrenoceptors by noradrenaline. The effects may be summarised by the following table: ᭢ 27 APPLIED SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY VIVAS A Effects mediated by adrenoceptor subtypes Adrenoceptor Tissue ␣2 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Smooth muscle Blood vessels Constrict Constrict Bronchi Constrict GI tract Non-sphincter Relax (hyperpolarisation) Sphincter Contract Uterus Contract Bladder Detrusor Sphincter Contract Seminal tract Contract Iris (radial) Contract Ciliary muscle Heart Skeletal muscle Liver Glycogenolysis Kϩ release Fat Nerve terminals Adrenergic Cholinergic (some) Salivary gland Kϩ release Platelets Mast cells Second messengers 28 ␣l ᭿ IP3, DAG ␤l ␤2 Dilate Dilate Relax (no hyperpolarisation) Relax Relax Relax Relax Incr rate Incr force Tremor Glycogenolysis Lipolysis Decr release Incr release Decr release Amylase secretion Aggregation Inhibition of histamine release ↓cAMP ↑cAMP ↑cAMP APPLIED SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY VIVAS CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT 2.

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