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A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications by Jane H. Hill

By Jane H. Hill

In a single of the main thorough stories ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar reports the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive aspects of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological positive aspects, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our figuring out of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan kin of languages in historic and areal standpoint.

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Extra info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)

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Stress remains where it would have been placed had the enclitic not been present. An example with an object proclitic and a modal enclitic is shown in (52). (52) Ni=pe-yax=’ep. 1 S O -3 S -S A Y = R He said to me. (Faye Tramp 75 018 ) The object proclitics, in contrast to the subject and possessor prefixes, are not stressed when they appear with unstressed roots. 2. (53) Chem=che=pe ishmivi-y i=max. F We will give something to you. (2 43 478 ) The stressless verb root kwa -s ‘eat’ behaves differently from the other stressless roots.

The other fricatives appear only in Spanish loans and are discussed below. The following examples illustrate the fricatives and their major allophones in context. (13) /v/ a. as onset: kwaavichu ‘will take care of’, %ha’vit ‘Mexican’ b. as coda: tavxaa’ ‘will work’, chivnish ‘swamp root’ /v/ appears word-initially in Spanish loanwords and in only a single native word, the verb vel ‘wave’ (which requires the object -ma -s ‘hand’). (14) /s/ a. as onset: samat ‘grass’, sechingily ‘thorn bush’, singalyily ‘heron, sandpiper’, sulit ‘one’ b.

D. /i/: nit ‘pregnant woman’ /e/ [ë]: net ‘chief, lineage head’ /u/: nutkeve ‘bag lunch’ /a/: tatxa’ash ‘manzanita berries’ Examples of unstressed short vowels are seen in (33). (33) Unstressed short vowels a. /i/: %ha’vit ‘Mexican person’, pe-ki ‘3 S ’s house’ b. /e/ [ë]: kwivet ‘brush enclosure’, Kelelve ‘Manzanita Place (Puerta Cruz)’ (place name) c. /u/: tukut ‘wildcat’, nu-$hu ‘my mother’s mother’ d. , pit [pIt] ‘road’. , ivi’aw [¿eÈvi¿aw] ‘here’. , tutuchin [ÈtutëtSIn] ‘will tell’, puvulim [ÈpuvëlIm] ‘doctors’.

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