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22.Energy Conversion by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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It removes humidity from the compressed air. Conclusion The evolution of mankind is currently focused on harmonization with nature. Sustainable development will thus be a goal, especially in the energy sector, and energy costs will include externalities as well. In view of ecological restrictions and externality costs, some primary energy sources will become very expansive, and wind and solar energy will gain ground. Except for local utilization of wind or solar energy, considering the abundance, degree of dispersion, and intermittence of these sources, energy storage solutions must be found.

By the monitoring and signaling installation the current state of the pneumochamber is reported to the compressor station so as to stop or start the compressors. The moments at which the compressors are started and stopped being thus clearly determined, idling is completely eliminated, leading to a valuable reduction in energy consumption. At the end of the first stage in the operation of the hydropneumatic accumulator, if the compressors are not stopped in time, there is a risk that the compressed air in the pneumochamber will pass into the hydrochamber through the hydraulic connection, where it can spray or push water out of the hydrochamber, causing unbalanced operation and possible severe damage to the surrounding mining workings.

A few remarks should be added on the financial aspects of these comparative values. The total costs associated with an air-reservoir station can be analyzed as follows (for ten years of turbine operation with reservoir load): Machines. 40% to 50% COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE 13 Fig. 12. Representation of compressed air expansion in a T–s diagram. Air reservoir. 30% to 15% Annexes. 30% to 35% The low values for the reservoir refer to reservoirs in saline rocks. If several groups of machines were connected to the same reservoir, its share in the overall cost would be even smaller.

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